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information technology (IT)

What is Information Technology? Definition and Examples

information technology (IT)

In this article, we will talk about information technology

  • What is information technology?
  •  What are the components of an IT system?
  • What are the uses of information technology?
  • What is the importance of information technology?
  • What are the pros of information technology?
  • What are the downsides of information technology?
  • information technology jobs

What is information technology?

 It is known by the acronym IT.

 It is a business sector that depends on dealing with computing, including hardware, software, and communications

In addition, everything related to the transfer of information and systems that facilitate communication, and the concept of information technology includes data management in its various forms, whether texts, images, sounds, or others.

The Internet is both a part of technology and a special field in it, and it is now considered a part of people's lives and is still increasingly prevalent around the world.

 What are the components of an IT system?

The information technology system aims to provide information that is suitable for the user. It collects and processes data and then transfers information to the end-user of the system.

 The components of the information technology system are limited to five components,

 which are :

  • Computer components.
  •  Computer Programs.
  • Telecommunications.
  •  Databases and data warehouses.
  •  HR.

What are the uses of information technology?

Technology has developed to a large extent and has entered all aspects of human life, due to what distinguishes information technology from providing comfort and making life easier.

 There are many uses of information technology in the following areas:

  • in education

information technology has been introduced into the education system through the use of mobile phones and tablets.

 In addition to computers and others, information technology also provides a distance learning system; The teacher can continue to provide lessons to students using the Internet through digital technologies

 and communication between the teacher and student is through video calls, file sharing, etc., which makes the idea of ​​​​interrupting education very limited.

  • in the economy


information technology has played an important role in the economy, as it has created and will continue to create many job opportunities in the field of information technology, which is one of the widest and largest fields of work,

 and also contributes greatly to increasing GDP growth through e-commerce, in addition to the industries that technology has created new applications,

 such as the application industry, also contributed greatly to business innovation, as most companies are present on the Internet and are marketing themselves through social networking sites.

  • in health

The entry of information technology into the health care sector has led to significant improvements in it, so doctors are at their desks sending and receiving medical information from doctors who dealt with them in advance,

 which saves the time that the doctor would take on patients if he were to use papers instead of the computer, and hospitals also contain tools Almost everywhere is digital, from virtual care devices to networks that store clinical data, patient data, test results, and more.

  • in-home life

 In addition to the entertainment provided by information technology in the home that was mentioned previously,

 the importance of information technology lies in home life as it also provides good infrastructure and applications for communication between people while sitting at home,

 some applications provide communication through video calls and voice, others through messaging only, and some through sharing only.

What Are the Advantages of Information Technology in Business?

Talking about the advantages of technology requires writing an entire book. What technology has produced is not a single thing,

 but rather thousands of developments that not all people may see or experience directly every day. 

The following points summarize the most prominent benefits and advantages of technology:

  • Easy access to information

Perhaps one of the most important advantages of technology is to facilitate access to information, as it has become very easy to access any information at any time and anywhere,

 and this thing has become possible thanks to modern technologies such as smartphones and the Internet that allow access to a huge amount of information with ease through Use the Internet,

as sites like YouTube contain a myriad of content that can be used for entertainment or learning.

  • Facilitate the communication process

 Modern technology, with its various tools, has developed the processes of communication and communication between humans, and among the most important of these tools are fax,

 e-mail, mobile phones, video conferencing, text messaging applications, social networks, and others.

 It is also possible to communicate with other cultures and make friends using mobile phones and video chat applications.

  • Education media development

 The advantages of technology appear in the educational field by facilitating the distance learning process using the Internet, which has spread widely during the Corona pandemic,

 as students are currently using modern technology in the classroom to learn more effectively, for example, students use tablets to share visual lessons With their colleagues in the classroom,

 this makes the learning process more enjoyable and comfortable, and modern educational technologies help self-learning, which allows students to learn on their own.

  • health services development

The development of health services and the improvement of human health is one of the most prominent advantages of technology,

 as many hospitals have applied modern technologies in surgical operating rooms, which has reduced human errors,

 as humans can commit multiple mistakes due to work pressure and stress factors, in addition to Programmers have developed health apps that enable people to track their health, weight, and fitness through mobile apps.

Entertainment Development

Modern technology has played an important role in the development of entertainment through creativity in improving home entertainment tools thanks to the invention of video games,

 digital music libraries, modern visual systems such as smart TVs that can connect directly to the Internet, and modern technologies have made it easier to access and store all music clips at a low cost, In addition,

 you can watch the latest and best movies from home without having to visit cinemas through home cinema devices.

  • Development of the field of economy and industry

 Scientific progress in the field of technology has led to a revolution in the field of economy and industry,

 as the inclusion of information technology applications in the economic and industrial fields has improved productivity and raised the percentage of profits, in addition to its positive effects on efficiency,

 which in turn is reflected in saving time and effort consumers in these areas, as well. The increase in the use of machines and robots reduces errors, increases safety and accuracy in work and calculations, and reduces overall cost.

Disadvantages of information technology

Despite all of the above-mentioned advantages of technology and its role in improving the lives and well-being of human beings, the uses of technology involve several negatives and risks, some of which affect human lives directly.

  • health problems

 Most people spend a lot of time in front of computers and smartphones, which increases stress and causes many other health problems.

  • Psychological and family problems

 The lack of privacy in addition to the increase in violence and the disintegration of the social fabric in both the family and society.

  • Increasing pollution and energy consumption

 Increasing pollution as a result of not properly disposing of electronic waste, in addition to that technological development will increase human consumption and the number of people who came via smart devices and the Internet.

The most important specialties of information technology

  • programming

Programmers have a very important role in the relatively complex process of building information and programs, such as operating systems (Windows - Linux - Mac), and knowledge of computer science rules is great.

The programmer is the person responsible for fixing defects, reviewing the written code of any system or application, and ensuring that it is connected with the approved data storage systems in the organization or company.

That is why this specialization requires knowledge of basic and more complex programming languages ​​such as C++ and Java, as these are the languages ​​that computer scientists rely on in developing modern programming languages, so any able programmer must understand them well.

Also, programmers must be familiar with the mathematical and statistical rules used, such as basic algorithms, so that they can easily perform complex logical operations.

For this, you will find that giant company such as Google and Microsoft depend on programmers to build and develop complex programs and systems, such as the Internet browsers you use, or Microsoft Office programs.

This specialization has many functions, 

the most famous of which are:

  • Data Scientist.
  • Software Engineer.
  • System Architect.
  • Graphic Developer.

There are also other functions that depend on the type of programming languages ​​and frameworks that are relied upon to perform certain tasks.

  • web development

Web development is part of programming in general, but it is considered the simplest part, which may not depend on complex computations and systems, but depends on creativity and development.

There are many examples of what web developers do, but perhaps the most famous of these are building websites, web applications, scripts for collecting and analyzing data, and mobile applications.

This specialization depends on knowing the requirements of users, and the obstacles that stand in their way to achieving a specific goal and then building programs and applications that meet those demands while providing a good user experience.

Web developers must provide the necessary information to users so that they can deal with these applications smoothly, so this specialization requires a lot of effort.

This specialization requires knowledge of multiple programming languages ​​to choose the appropriate ones to carry out various tasks such as:

  • HTML and CSS for building the infrastructure of websites and applications.
  • The JavaScript language and its frameworks perform logical operations and various applications.
  • PHP and Python are very versatile, especially for building databases.
  • Kotlin and Swift for building mobile applications.

Many programming languages can be used, and it depends on the tasks required, or the type of job the web developer is doing, whether he is responsible for the virtual part of applications and sites, or the so-called Front-End Developer.

Or the hidden part of databases and dealing with servers called Back-End Developer.

Or both together, which is what is called (Full-Stack Developer).

  • Hardware and technical support

This is the specialty that the word “IT” is called for everyone who works in it, especially in the Arab world, to the extent that some think that this specialty is the only job in this field.

This specialization is designed to provide technical support to users and employees, who do not have experience or knowledge in the field of information technology in general.

Therefore, this specialization does not require a deep knowledge of information technology or computer science,

 but it does require knowledge of the basics of computer work and various hardware parts, as well as operating systems and programs used.

Those who work in this specialty are the technical support service that you communicate within most companies or technology-related services,

 and they are the technical support service in most institutions and companies that rely on computers and the Internet in general.

Their main task is to help you repair faults, and provide the required reports to the relevant departments in the event of repeated defects or malfunctions to fix them permanently.

  • Information security and protection systems

This specialty is the most in need of continuous development because there is something new every day in the world of information technology,

 and because everyone wants to obtain that information, this specialty has become very popular in the last twenty years.

This specialization depends on an understanding of networks, mechanisms of information delivery, knowledge of computer science, various encryption mechanisms, and methods of communication between different operating systems and programs.

The jobs or tasks required in this specialty depend largely on the ability to analyze information, and conduct tests on systems and programs on an ongoing basis. 

Perhaps the most famous of them are:

  • Information Security Engineer Cyber ​​Security Engineer.
  • Security Analyst.

These jobs vary according to experience. 

There are protection engineers - as I mentioned - all they have to know is how to rely on and employ different protection programs, 

and there are those whose task is to design those programs themselves, and there are those who work in the field of analysis and management.

Incidentally, this specialization is the main reason behind the emergence of the famous blockchain technology that will have huge applications shortly.

  • Network Engineering

This specialty is very popular and widely recognized in the world of information technology, as it depends on full knowledge of the various Internet systems, as well as the hardware on which any system depends.

All this is to create a specific framework for the transfer of data between the personnel of any institution or organization quickly and securely according to specific rules.

That is why you will find communications engineering graduates are most of those who work in this field, because they study networks of all kinds, and they can deal with all kinds of the necessary hardware.

  • computer systems

This specialization depends on a complete understanding of the IT field in general, so it requires a great deal of experience because it relates to hardware, software, networks, and any external system that any organization depends on for information.

This is why systems analysts or those responsible for it (System Administrators) have a great influence on the decisions of any organization, and they constantly direct the rest of the departments to carry out the tasks required of them.

Jobs related to this specialization are only accessible to those with great experience in one or more of the specializations we mentioned earlier, especially the networking specialty.

Basic skills in the field of IT

Whatever specialization you are interested in in the field of information technology (IT), there are several basic skills that any person working in this field must-have, regardless of his position, the type of tasks required of him, or the industry in which he works.

These skills are required by all companies to hire anyone in the field of IT because they are necessary to succeed in this field, so we will address each of them in some detail.

These skills are not just to put in your CV, but you must absorb them well to do your job to the fullest.

  • communication skills

Working in the field of IT requires continuous cooperation because often any particular project is implemented by a large team and not one individual. This communication is very important.

Not only that, each specific project or task is carried out through cooperation between several departments in the same organization, such as the marketing and public relations department, the research and development department, and the customer service department.

That is why those who work in this field must know how to communicate with people in a smooth manner, and how to present their ideas in an image that anyone simply understands, especially those who do not have any technical background in this field.

  • Data analysis skill

Oftentimes, reports and information on the market situation and opinion polls are presented to users or customers in all companies, so the skill of data analysis is essential.

This skill enables you to read between the lines and know the steps that must be taken to fix any malfunctions or develop any particular process to get better results.

  • creativity skill

A web developer or programmer, and even a network engineer must have a creative sense that enables him to think outside the box, and put an artistic touch on any particular service or system to make it convenient and usable.

Remember that the task of someone working in the field of IT is to make life easier for people in general by using the technology in their hands, and people generally prefer artistic creative touches in any product or service.

That's why companies are always looking for creatives who think outside the box, not the traditional copy-and-paste people, or blindly follow the popular.

  • Problem-solving skill

Certain steps, and the more familiar a person is with the tools he relies on, the simpler the solution to any problem.

That's why you ask the people who save them, who work, as a whole, as quickly as possible to overcome any obstacles. Because problems and flaws constantly appear, that's why

Possessing this knowledge in addition to the specialized scientific knowledge you have chosen for the opportunity to get a job in the field of information technology.

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